Do you want to know what are the most common diseases in young children? In this article we list them and give some tips to prevent them.

It doesn’t fail. It’s starting kindergarten and constantly getting sick. I stopped counting the times they had to call me to pick up my son. There’s nothing to do. Children do not have a mature immune system and because of that, they get sick easily and quite often. The positive part of all those viruses and bacteria that affect them is that they will help them develop antibodies. In this article we will see what are the most common diseases in children under 5 years of age.

To make the selection we have taken into account the statistics, including those of the INE and the Spanish Association of Primary Care Paediatrics .

Respiratory tract infections are very common, especially in the nursery stage. Asthma, dermatitis, conjunctivitis and digestive problems are also frequent . Fever , malaise , and muscle aches are the most common symptoms. It is treated with paracetamol and ibuprofen.



Not only is it the most frequent disease among Spanish children, it is also among adults. As a general rule, the flu should not have complications, but with children under two years of age or with a compromised immune system, special care must be taken.


It is an exanthematic disease , that is, it causes rashes on the skin, especially on the head and trunk. The vaccine is included in childhood vaccination schedules (two doses before 4 years of age). In addition to itchy blisters, it presents with a headache and fever.

Chickenpox is contagious from before symptoms appear and until the skin lesions scab over. It is treated with antipyretics.


Children under one year of age are the most likely to suffer from this respiratory infection. It looks like a cold , but the child has difficulty breathing and a kind of beeping sound is heard when he tries to do so. It usually lasts between 7 and 10 days.


Specialist statistics indicate that 90% of the population has passed it. It is transmitted by the exchange of saliva . Symptoms in young children are milder, but it is characterized by swelling of the tonsils and pharynx.

It is treated with medications to lower fever, hydration and rest.


Those of us who have small children know very well what it is about. It is common between 2 and 10 years. Sores appear first in the mouth and then spread to the hands and feet . It is usually accompanied by fever and malaise.

Whooping cough

At first it looks like a cold, but then an incessant cough appears that can even cause vomiting. Vaccines (the first dose is at two months) are the best method to prevent this disease.


The age range in which there are more cases is between 2 and 12 years. It is caused by a virus and the best way to immunize children is by giving them the vaccine.


Cases of this bacterial disease are still recorded. Young children are usually infected by adults who contract it.

Intestinal worms

They are worms that resemble white threads. They cause itching in the anal area. There are medications to kill the parasite causing the infection.


Every time the school year begins, parents receive a circular from the school warning that there is pediculosis . For children under two years of age, it is best to cut their hair. We can apply specific products to the rest.


The common cold, tonsillitis , otitis , conjunctivitis, giardiasis (most common between 12 months and 5 years), measles, and urinary tract infections are also among the most common illnesses in young children.


As it is not a matter of putting our children in a bubble, most of the time we cannot prevent them from getting sick. However, we can always take some measures to minimize contagion . In addition to the importance that experts give to breastfeeding, my experience tells me that there are certain guidelines that all moms should follow.

Among others: frequent hand washing, disinfecting toys, airing the house every day, getting enough sleep and eating a balanced diet.

It is also important to teach children to cover their mouths when they cough or sneeze. I tell my son to put his elbow (I love this rap of the cough and the elbow ), because what I do not see with his hand is very hygienic. If it were disinfected immediately afterwards, still. But I know he’s going to sneeze or cough and then he’s going to touch something.

Likewise, it is necessary to comply with the vaccination schedule.

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